ES Modules: suggestions for improvement

Axel Rauschmayer axel at
Fri Jun 29 16:49:24 PDT 2012

> In Java, they didn't even *have* a module system because classes did double-duty as a data abstraction, a constructor, a type definition and a module.

Not that it affects your arguments, but that is not entirely true. With packages, you’ve always had a namespacing mechanism that was easy to understand (because it mapped directly to directories) and prevented name clashes (thanks to its reverse domain name convention). And there was package-private visibility. So packages are like 30% of a module system. Classes were mainly used as modules when Java needed to work around not having functions (via static methods), a bit like JSON, Math, et al.

Dr. Axel Rauschmayer
axel at


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